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Cubitt in the UK, and a paper by Philippe Boutry b. It has lost none of its relevance, even if. Academic research throughout these years attests to both a dynamic environment and an extensive freedom. Access to archival material was readily available even for the most recent periods as well as for sensitive dossiers. The breakdown of provinces introduced from to added to the complexity of the archiving process. The documents of houses that were allocated to another province in remain in their original province.

For instance, the documents relating to Rouen, in France-Nord from to , or to Nantes, in the province of France-Atlantique during that year period are to be found in the Paris Province archival collections. Out of four sub-collections, two, Toulouse and Champagne, came with an inventory, sound in the case of Toulouse, dubious for Champagne. The inventory and classifying for Paris and Lyon has gradually improved since This explains the disparity between the classification and inventory of the four sub-collections. Dominique Julia b.

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The speakers included Marc Fumaroli, known for publishing a study on rhetoric where the Jesuits took center stage. Lagging slightly behind, the New Society has elicited almost equal interest. Bernard Plongeron b. What all the above-quoted contemporaneous historians have in common is their personal proximity with Jesuits, notably in the context of the Second World War.

Etienne Fouilloux b. His interest in the Society of Jesus starts in the late sixties, and focuses on the Jesuits who were involved in a range of approaches towards Christian unity. Under the aegis of Etienne Fouilloux and Bernard Hours b. Now far removed from nineteenth-century controversy, Jesuit education in the late modern period is fully an object of historical scrutiny. The notion of the end of authentic Jesuit colleges, illustrated by John W.

Pierre Lyonnet —49 , or specialist subjects. The history of French Jesuit external missions is examined through a fresh lens. For his part, Jean Lefeuvre — , worked with Claude Larre — , towards the Grand Dictionnaire Ricci de la Langue chinoise published in Some of his colleagues, e. As for the Jesuit missions in North America, essentially Canada, studies undertaken from the s onwards are the preserve of academics. After a historiography in two diverging voices, apologetic for one and anti-Jesuit for the other, the writing of the history of the Society of Jesus has benefitted in France from scholarly critical methodology.

Meanwhile, the Dominicans and Benedictines would only be reinstated much later, circa , and would thus be much less affected by the political context of their return to France: it is not by chance that Lacordaire, a Dominican, was able to develop a liberal position which finds no echoes in the other orders. Pierre-Antoine Fabre and Catherine Maire, ed. O'Malley, ed. Paris: Lecoffre et C ie , —46, The book was to be reprinted several times. Charpentier, Paul Bert was minister of education and cults in Stanislas du Lac, S.

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Lecoffre, Paquet, Paris: Hachette, Baltenweck, Le Mans: Leguicheux, In , Camille de Rochemonteix had already published Souvenirs de Sainte-Croix du Man s, the history of which is, according to him, like all other colleges. Alexandre Brou, Les grands ordres religieux: 1. Paris: Picard, — Paris: Beauchesne, — Paris: Paris: Colin, —2. Zi Ka Wei is a suburb of Shanghai. Daurignac, Vie du R. Pierre Suau, S. Seitz et C ie , Letter from Very Rev.

Picard, Marcel Viller s. Cavallera, S. George E. Ganss [St. Flint and D. It has been translated as The Jesuits , trans. Pierre Delattre, ed.

The text went unpublished and is preserved in the Jesuit archive in Vanves. John W.

The Contest between Neo-Latin and Vernacular Poetry in Renaissance France

It is not surprising, then, that Anglo-French was a subject of remark in France, especially when we remember that already in the thirteenth century the provincial accents of the different parts of France herself had been the object of some considerable amount of raillery. In the Roman de Jehan et Blonde , the young Frenchman's rival, the Duke of Gloucester, is made to appear ridiculous by speaking bad French; and one of the tricks played by Renart on Ysengrin, in the Roman de Renart , is to pretend he is an Englishman: [63].

A fabliau of the fourteenth century [64] pictures the dilemma of two Englishmen trying to make their French understood in France; one of them is ill and would have some lamb:. His friend sets out to try to get the 'anel' or 'lamb'; but no one understands him, and he becomes the laughing-stock of the villagers. At last some one gives him a 'small donkey' instead of the desired 'agnel,' and out of this he makes a dish for the invalid who finds the bones rather large. In the face of a reputation such as this it is no wonder that the English found additional encouragement to abandon the foreign language and cultivate their own tongue.

English was also beginning to make its way into official documents. There were a few public documents issued in English at the end of the century, but the Acts and Records of Parliament continued to be written in French for many years subsequently. English first made its way into the operative parts of the Statutes, and till the formal parts were still written in French and Latin.

Till the seventeenth century works on jurisprudence and reports on cases were mainly written in French. Les Cases de Gray's Inn shows French in accounts of discussions on difficult legal cases as late as Swift thus estimates the value of the three languages of the English Law: [67]. The rules and accounts of the nunneries were more often in French than not. During this same period English began to be used occasionally in correspondence; but here again its progress was slow. Some idea of the extent to which French was utilized for that purpose may be gathered from the fact that three extant letters of William de Wykeham, addressed to Englishmen, are all in that tongue.

Not till the second and third decades of the fifteenth century were English and French employed in correspondence to an almost equal extent, and during the following years, especially in the reign of Henry VI. Towards the middle of the fourteenth century, at the beginning of the long wars with France, French lost ground in England in yet another direction. Edward III. But syth it is somdele chaunged. Now i. Wherin they have advantage on way that they lerne the soner ther gramer. And in another disadvantage.

For nowe they lerne no Frenssh ne can none, whiche is hurte for them that shall passe the see," and thus children of the grammar schools know "no more French than knows their lefte heele.

Thus the custom of translating Latin into French passed out of use early in the second half of the fourteenth century. No doubt there had been signs of the approaching change in the preceding period, and it is of interest here to notice that while Neckham's Latin vocabulary, which dates from the second half of the twelfth century, is glossed in French alone, that of Garlande, which belongs approximately to the third decade of the following century, is accompanied by translations in both French and English.

In the universities, however, where French had been slower in gaining a foothold, it remained longer; in the fifteenth century teachers of French were still allowed to lecture there as they had done previously, but it is to be noticed that in all the colleges founded after the Black Death , from which the change in the grammar schools is dated, the regulations encouraging the speaking of French in Hall are absent. The change appears also to have affected the higher classes, who did not usually frequent the grammar schools and universities, but depended on more private methods of instruction.

Trevisa here again adds a correction to the earlier chronicle, and informs us that "gentylmen haveth now myche lefte for to teach their children Frensch. We thus witness the gradual disappearance of the effects of the Norman Conquest in the history of the use of the French language in England. The Conquest had made Norman-French the language of the Court, and to some extent, of the Church; it had brought with it a French literature which nearly smothered the national literature and replaced it temporarily; it had led to the system of translating Latin into French as well as into English in the schools.

In the later fourteenth century French was no longer the chief language of the Court, and the king spoke English and was addressed in the same tongue. In the Church the employment of French had been restricted and transitory, though, as has been mentioned, it lingered in some of the monasteries until the sixteenth century; yet Latin never found in it a serious rival in this sphere, and the ecclesiastical department of the law never followed the civil in the adoption of the use of French.

How French lost ground in the other spheres has already been traced: in all these cases its employment may be regarded as a direct result of the Conquest. This great event had also indirect results. French became the official language of England, and the favourite medium of correspondence in the thirteenth century, when the fusion between the two races was complete. But it is highly improbable that French would have spread in these directions if the Conquest had not in the first place made French the vernacular of a considerable portion of Englishmen, and that the most influential.

With its use in official documents and in correspondence, may be classed the slight encouragement French received at Oxford. In all these spheres it remained longer than it had done where its status had been a more direct result of the Conquest.

Meanwhile the desire to cultivate and imitate the French of France had been growing stronger and stronger; and when, towards the end of the fourteenth century, the older influences were getting feebler, and in some cases had passed away, the influence of the continental French, especially the French of Paris, now supreme over the other dialects, became more and more marked.

And it is this language which henceforth Englishmen strove to learn, gradually relinquishing the corrupt idiom with which for so long their name had been associated.


No attempt at a theoretical treatment of the French language appeared in France in the Middle Ages. Wright, Volume of Vocabularies , 2 vols. The psalms, together with Cato, Ovid, or possibly Virgil, formed the usual reading material in the Grammar Schools. But there is no evidence that it was used in England.